My Friends,

I want to make a little more emphasis on the Force in a System.

We have different types of Forces:

### Electromotive Force E.M.F

A measure of the strength of a source of electrical energy. The term is often shortened to emf. It is not a force in the usual mechanical sense (and for this reason has sometimes been called electromotance), but it is a conveniently descriptive term for the agency which drives current through an electric circuit. In the simple case of a direct current I (measured in amperes) flowing through a resistor R (in ohms), Ohm's law states that there will be a voltage drop (or potential difference) of V = IR (in volts) across the resistor. To cause this current to flow requires a source with emf (also measured in volts) E = V. More generally, Kirchhoff's voltage law states that the sum of the source emf's taken around any closed path in an electric circuit is equal to the sum of the voltage drops. This is equivalent to the statement that the total emf in a closed circuit is equal to the line integral of the electric field strength around the circuit. See Electric current, Electric field, Electrical resistance, Ohm's law

An emf may be steady (direct), as for a battery, or time-varying, as for a charged capacitor discharging through a resistor. Emf's may be generated by a variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Some of the more important are:

1. Electrochemical reactions, as used in direct-current (dc) batteries, in which the emf results from the reactions between electrolyte and electrodes.

2. Electromagnetic induction, in which the emf results from a change in the magnetic flux linking the circuit. This finds application in alternating-current rotary generators and transformers, providing the basis for the electricity supply industry. See Electromagnetic induction, Faraday's law of induction

3. Thermoelectric effects, in which a temperature difference between different parts of a circuit produces an emf. The main use is for the measurement of temperature by means of thermocouples; there are some applications to electric power generation. See Thermocouple, Thermoelectricity

4. The photovoltaic effect, in which the absorption of light (or, more generally, electromagnetic radiation) in a semiconductor produces an emf. This is widely used for scientific purposes in radiation detectors and also, increasingly, for the generation of electric power from the Sun's radiation. See Photovoltaic effect, Radiometry

5. The piezoelectric effect, in which the application of mechanical stress to certain types of crystal generates an emf. There are applications in sound recording, in ultrasonics, and in various types of measurement transducer. See Kirchhoff's laws of electric circuits, Piezoelectricity, Ultrasonics

Ref: Electromotive force

### Magnetomotive Force M.M.F

A quantity that characterizes the magnetic action of an electric current. The magnetomotive force is introduced in calculations of magnetic circuits by analogy with the electromotive force in electric circuits.

The magnetomotive force F is equal to the circulation of the vector of magnetic field intensity H through a closed circuit L that encompasses the electric currents generated by the magnetic field:

(in the International System of Units). Here HI is the projection of H onto the direction of the element of the integration circuit d I and n is the number of conductors (coils) carrying a current Ii that are encompassed by the circuit. The unit of magnetomotive force is the ampere (or ampere-turn) in the International System of Units and the gilbert in the cgs system of units (symmetrical); 1 A = (4π/10) Gb ~ 1.2566 Gb.

Ref: Magnetomotive Force (MMF)

**NOTE:** Every single Coil with Turns ( **N** ) that carry's a Current ( **I** ) has a Magnetomotive Force **M.M.F**.

Each force is a different and fundamental force every Electromagnetic Machine is subjected to.

Oh My, there are a lot of terrible definitions out there! One has to weed through the non-sense to find a definition that makes a little sense. Old School information is the best to look at as all the new information is a diabolical mess of drivel!

As Floyd Sweet said:

The source of energy is unlimited, the virtual vacuum of space itself structured by a motional electromagnetic field is the powerhouse.

...

Truly, lines of flux are always in closure upon themselves and are mathematically expressed as line integrals. It is fallacious to use the term "cutting", which implies time varying separation which does not in fact ever occur. A motionally induced E-field is actually created within the space occupied by the moving magnetic flux described above. This field is present therein, whether or not a conductor is present in the space.

Ref: Floyd Sweet Nothing is Something

Clemente Figuera said the same thing:

PRINCIPLE OF THE INVENTION - Watching closely what happens in a Dynamo in motion

...

The voltage from the total current of the current dynamos is the sum of partial induced currents born in each one of the turns of the induced. Therefore it matters little to these induced currents if they were obtained by the turning of the induced, or by the **variation of the magnetic flux that runs through them**; but in the first case, a greater source of mechanical work than obtained electricity is required, and in the second case, the force necessary to achieve the variation of flux is so insignificant that it can be derived without any inconvenience, from the one supplied by the machine. Until the present no machine based on this principle has been applied yet to the production of large electrical currents, and which among other advantages, has suppressed any necessity for motion and therefore the force needed to produce it.

**NOTE**: Clemente Figuera used Three Coils also! The Three Coils were arranged in a fashion to "Generate" Energy to Power a Load! No-one can argue other wise with this! Therefore, this Arrangement must have been sufficient to obey the laws of Electromagnetic Induction!

As soon as the Magnetic Field B, changes in Time, you have the potential for the "Generation" of Electrical Energy! This is, however, only part of the Solution! One must Balance one **M.M.F** with another **M.M.F** and this, once done correctly is the answer to the problem!

Each Partnered Output Coil has a Symmetrical Balance of **M.M.F**, in other words, **M.M.F**_{One} + M.M.F_{Two} = 0, or **1 + -1 = 0**.

When Force is Balanced, we see little reaction back on the Input! The Input experiences no Loading under Machine Load!

**NOTE:** I want to point out, in a Simulation, I was told this could be done, but in practice, it can not, LTSpice and no doubt many other Simulation Applications, will not allow you to make the Source of the Energy "Generation" in a Coil, its previous neighbor! In other words, L1 is ok to be the Source for L2, but L2 can not be the Source for L3, so those that have told you they have Simulated this, beware, they ( others on other forums ) could very well be misleading you! I have found no method to work around this problem and the Applications do not work for this configuration! This means, Sim's are useless for this Tech, in other words, we are missing Half of Science!

Best wishes,

Chris