My Friends,

It is easy to take what is obvious to one, for granted, and not realise others may not see this for various different reasons, for this, I apologise!

Coil Geometry is an Important aspect, one which must be taken into account for many reasons! I will try to cover this in more detail in this thread! To fully appreciate the scope of this thread, one must take all aspects into account! Lets start with some fundamentals!

First, I want to point out, most of this has been covered in pretty good detail in my Videos and in various Threads on this Forum.

**NOTE:** I tried to point this out in the Thread: Delta B in Partnered Output Coils

### Voltage V

Pointed out in other Threads, **Voltage V** is "Generated", predicted by Faradays Law. There are two variations of Faradays Law, each covering two different methods of "Generation" of Voltage V:

**E.M.F = -N dΦ**_{b}/ dt**E.M.F = Bvl**

**Electromotive Force, E.M.F** is measured in Units of Volts, and is the Total Unit Charge Difference between Two Terminals, one considered Positive and one considered Negative. **Electrons e ^{-}** have a Negative Charge, and a

**Electron Hole**, or

**Ion e**not to be confused with the

^{+}**Proton p**, is considered a Positive Charge. As far as Science currently understands, each can "Move" relative to its position in three dimensional Space, relative to the Neiboring Quanta.

^{+}The **Negative Sign -** is Lenz's Law addition to Faradays Law, giving the **Sine = 180** to the **E.M.F**. This is a Newtonian Action and Reaction Pair: For every Action there is an Equal and Opposite Reaction!

**Number of Turns N** is the Turns Multiplier for the Voltage Measured, or the **E.M.F**. If one Turn had a Difference in Potential of One Volt, then Ten Turns would have a total Difference of Ten Volts.

**Change in Magnetic Field dΦ _{b}** is also a Differential! This is actually quite easy, we must calculate a

**B**and a

_{Min}**B**and take the Difference between the two! A Measured Magnetic Field B Minimum might 10 Gauss, and the Magnetic Field B Maximum might be 110 Gauss, so the Difference is:

_{Max}**B**. This means,

_{Max}- B_{Min}= 100 Gauss**dΦ**= 100 Gauss.

_{b }**Change in Time dt**, is also a Differential, a change in time, if we were 10 seconds into a Test Run on the DUT, and we wanted to start a Measurement of the Magnetic Field B within this Duration, or Time Frame, and we stop at 12 Seconds, then, **dt** is **t _{Max} - t_{Min} = 12 Seconds - 10 Seconds = 2 Seconds**.

The **Velocity v** of the **Magnetic Field B** is the Speed of which the **Magnetic Field B** is "Moving".

The **Length l**, of the Conductor that the **Magnetic Field B** moves across, not to be confused with **Coil Length l** also, is a different Variable, that the **Magnetic Fiend B** with **Velocity v**, or cuts the Conductor **Length l**.

The **Magnetic Field B** is a unit of Magnetic Field Density, how much **Magnetic Field B** can fit into the **Cross Sectional Area** or **CSA**.

### Coil Cross Sectional Area CSA

**Cross Sectional Area, CSA** or sometimes just **A**, is a Windowed Variable. It is the Area of a Circle: **A = πr ^{2}**, or Area of a Rectangle, or a Square:

**Length l x Width w = A**, that the

**Magnetic Flux B**can Change inside. This is a really important Aspect and Floyd Sweet referred to this as Aspect Ratio, giving the Cross Sectional Area an:

- Aspect Ratio
- Time Delay

Where each quantity plays a role in the Signal, or the **Magnetic Field B's** Rate of Change.

Area can only hold a specific Quantity of **Magnetic Field B**, and the bigger the **Cross Sectional Area CSA**, the more **Magnetic Field B** can be accommodated! Floyd Sweet gave us this Gem:

Now let us consider the losses. Copper or

Cu Ilosses remain but may be minimized by using wire of larger than usual cross-sectional area.^{2}R

Doing some Mathematical Experiments, it is easy to see why this becomes an important statement:

### Exp 01:

### Exp 02:

By doubling our **Area**, we have reduced our Turns from 100 to 25, 1/4 the **Turns N**, and got the same Output **Voltage V**, and not shown, our reduction in Turns, gives us a much lower Impedance in the Coil!

### Coil Length l

**Coil Length l**, is another very important Variable! Again the Mathematical Experiment is required, and already shown previously, how such a simple change can make such a big difference to the over all Outcome!

### Exp 01:

### Exp 02:

By making a single change, to ONLY the **Coil Length l**, we have: **25132.7412287 / 2513.27412287 = 10 times** more **Magnetic Field B**, for no extra **Current I** or **Turns N**! Our Magnetic Field is Stronger for No Cost, only a Geometry Change!

All we have done is make our Coils Shorter in **Coil Length l** by a Factor of 10. From 0.1 to 0.01 Meters, or 1Cm.

### Coil Turns N

**Coil Turns N** gives us many over all Variables, **Voltage V**, **Resistance R**, due to **Wire Length l** and **Wire Gauge AWG**, Ohms per meter, and other issues like fitting **Turns N** on specific Spool Size and so on.

The ideal, but not always practical rule should be, minimal **Turns N** of Maximum **Wire Gauge AWG** on the shortest possible Spool Length, giving a Short **Coil Length l**.

So a Large **Cross Sectional Area CSA** with a Short **Coil Length l**, and Large **Wire Gauge AWG**, will give best results for the Output!

**NOTE:** Wire Gauge AWG is the Opposite of the Gauge Size, 12 Gauge is a thick Wire, **2.052mm**, 20 Gauge is **0.8128mm**,the Goal should be Thicker than normal Wire, meaning a Lower AWG! The Thicker the Gauge, the Lower the **DC Resistance**, thus the Goal, reducing the **DC Resistance**.

In the Electrical Generator, we see this situation all the time:

A Smart approach to an other wise simple problem, is the only way forward!

My Friends, **Magnetic Field B _{Max}** is a very important aspect to think about in Faradays Law Equation:

**E.M.F = -N dΦ**, we can see the Larger

_{b}/ dt**B**the more

_{Max}**Voltage V**"Generated"! Remember I have said, "get your Magnetic Fields Up" this is why.

Partnered Output Coils "Generate" **Voltage V** and Pump **Current I** to give: **Power P = Voltage V x Current I Cos( Theta θ )** and thus Energy in **Joules J** is: **Joules J = Power P x Time t**.

Electrodynamics is entirely Void off Asymmetry, this is why Science is Incomplete!

Best Wishes,

Chris