Romanian ZPM (Zero Point Module)

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi guys. I'm creating this thread in order to present a device which I think is a overunity device.
Just a short introduction...
I'm from Romania and I'm in this researching field for a few years working with Cd_Sharp, exchanging test results, information, hypothesis and ideas. He is in this field for more years than me so I actually learned a lot from him about this so I consider this device a result of our common work and research.
Also this device is using bucking coils about which I learned a lot from the information shared with all of us here by Chris.
The reason I'm making this information public is because I know nobody will gonna get rich from it, we all know the history and what happened to other researchers keeping secrets, trying to patent and produce in series their devices: they were silenced, were killed in "strange" accidents and took their secrets with them in the grave while we still struggle with the disasters produced by fossil-fuel/energy cartels ("Big Oil") and keep paying them trillions every year while we die from pollution and extreme weather and watching our planet on the way to becoming a big dead desert.
The truth is we as a species have very little time left to change the actual direction so even if we cannot stop the already started chain-reaction of weather changes at least we can limit the incoming effects and not making them worse by continuing on our way. Scientists say on the current way we will be here until 2050. Personally, seeing what is happening now I think they are optimistic.
So please use this information to replicate the device, test it (prove me right or prove me wrong), improve it and share back here your findings and improvements. The scope here is to have a number of these improved devices capable to provide electricity for a house so they can make it energy-independent.
Feel free to share the blueprints with others, we would be happy to know that at some point in the near future everyone will have his house powered by one or more devices like this.
Don't make the same mistake others did, don't try to produce it in series 'cause you can be sure they will come after you and hunt you down. When one or more devices like this will be capable to power a house then produce them for you, for friends or neighbors you trust. When hundreds or thousands of devices will be functioning in wild they will have no way to silence or hunt down so many people, it would be futile to even try.

Also don't think about keeping it secret just for yourself. There is no individual escape from what's coming, it's about just two options: we all survive or we all die. If only few hundreds of people will use this technology and keep it secret there will be no change in our actual direction as a species. Others will still use fossil fuel, pollution will continue and weather will become more and more violent. Free-energy will be useless for you while a 5, or 6 or even 7 grade typhoon or a local storm-cell is ripping your house apart. Don't think this will happen ? Look more carefully around you at what's happening with the weather in your area and in the world.
And don't steal this and post it somewhere else pretending to be the product of your research, give credit to these two Romanians, to Chris and to this community which is working hard to make a difference for the future.

Thank you,

Fighter

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

So let's start...

This is how ZPM is looking like (link to larger image here):

ZPM is using an Metglas AMCC-200 core, I bought two of them in 2017 for my research on Bearden's MEG; unfortunately I failed to make the device work even if I tried for two years; that's why I was silent here because I had no interesting results to present about my research.

I'm putting links about AMCC-200 technical specs here:

Hitachi - AMCC Cores Technical

Hitachi - AMCC Cores Presentation.

I recommend checking how Metglas cores are produced and read about their special characteristics so you know what you're dealing with; remember Metglas was something produced in 70s for military and space technologies.

Let me clarify something here, it's possible that Metglas (which is yet kind of expensive) is not needed for reproducing this device, maybe it works very well by using ferrite cores and using much lower frequencies, I'm just describing what I'm using in my research now.

It has two bucking coils (marked the with "L" and "R") winded in a way that when they're connected in series and powered on, their magnetic fields are opposing.

L coil has 101.4mH inductance and approx. 150 turns made of 0.8mm standard copper wire for coils. These are the complete characteristics I measured with my LCR meter (link to larger image here):

R coil has 365.5mH inductance and approx. 300 turns made of 0.8mm standard copper wire for coils. These are the complete characteristics I measured with my LCR meter (link to larger image here):

My guess is it's not important the ratio of turns and inductances between the two coils, I'm presenting this data just so you know the characteristics of the device I'm working with. Probably different ratios will result just in moving the optimum frequency ranges upper or lower and also different voltage and current on output but I don't think that will have significant impact on device's over-unity capability.

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Before connecting the two coils in series I wanted to make sure the magnetic fields produced by the two coils are opposing so I powered each coil separately and checked the polarity of its magnetic field (link to larger image here) :

Then I connected the coils in series and checked again that their magnetic fields are opposing (link to larger image here):

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

And this the schema of how the device is used (link to larger image here):

I know what you're thinking. "Wait, those light bulbs are powered by the source, not by the device !"

Not entirely true... Initially when the circuit is powered on maybe for few milliseconds could be true but if the frequency is optimum then the light bulbs will take only few miliampers from source, the rest of the power they require will actually be provided by ZPM. As I said what's new in ZPM is the way the bucking coils are used in order to provide power and (as the source is displaying) the voltage for the light bulbs is still provided by the source but almost all the power required by the light bulbs (for example two 12V/35W halogen light bulbs) is actually supplied by the ZPM while source is only providing only a few miliampers.

As a note: there is a limitation of how many light bulbs you can add in the circuit; for every light bulb you add you will need to find another optimum frequency to make the power taken from the source to go down to few miliampers again. Always the new optimum frequency will be lower and depending on how much power the new light bulb requires you may need to decrease the frequency with maybe 100-200 Khz. So adding too many light bulbs will force you to go under 100Khz range where the device will provide less and less power to the bulbs so they will start to get more and more power from the source.

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Here is the process I use to find a new optimum frequency when I change the number or type of lightbulbs on the output (in this example for a 12V/5W light bulb):

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Well, no more available time for now, I'll post more info when I'll find some time again...

Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter, I will post here answering to your latest post In the delayed conduction thread. Regarding the feedback loop I am not agreed, not generally , there may be applicable cases like J. Bedinis Battery charging Devices, where he stated the feedback made them fail to work, but many others do use feedbacks:  Figurea, Kapanadze, Don Smith, Floyd Sweet, including any convencional Generator for the field winding. Your primary Dipole is the power source, it's dipole is destroyed and recovered continuously.

For my comments about the driver I am sorry that I have not been clear enough. It depends on the employed circuit of course, but basically i addressed to a  possible energy transfer from the signal generator into the circuit. A small capacitance like the gate of a MOSFET can transfer considerable amount of energy at high frequencies, specially if you use the S.G. directly to drive the MOSFET. A SG. can output perfectly a few watts of power, this can influence in your measurements, you would not see this on your input measurements, it can be avoided by using optical isolating drivers, or dedicated optocouplers to separate the signal source from your  tested device. If you need help for a circuit diagram just let me know, or you could use the design of the power switch modules posted in my thread about switching tool development. Regarding the scalar waves, there's nothing misterious about, It only means longitudinal waves, which are oscillating in the direction of the propagation, in contrast to transverse waves , they oscillating perpendicular to the direction of propagation. At high potential and frequency the longitudinal waves can damage many dielectric materials. A well known phenomenon when experiments with Tesla Coils are performed. Keep up your work and thanks for sharing. Vidura.

cd_sharp posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey guys, Vidura

A small capacitance like the gate of a MOSFET can transfer considerable amount of energy at high frequencies, specially if you use the S.G. directly to drive the MOSFET.

Yes, but the S.G. should heat up, especially if it does not include any heat sink.

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Atti posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey dude! Nice work. But take note!
Examine the current and voltage conditions, phase position. This is probably a parallel L-R resonance. Further measurement will find out.
  (The negative tension is always present due to the internal inverse diode in the given drawing. Positive marking.)
The internal instruments of some tear discs may be misinformed by extreme pulses.
Place the 4700-10000y capacitor in parallel with the output of the power supply. The power supply instrument already measures this current consumption.Vidura's comment is also helpful.

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Vasile posted this 4 weeks ago

Thank you for posting this Fighter and also CD_Sharp. Very insightfull.

All the best,

Vasile

 

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi guys, I'm currently at work so I don't have too much time but I'll try to address some concerns.

About source's readings, I double-checked it using this wattmeter while powering up the device: https://www.optimusdigital.ro/en/others/2431-watt-metru-dc.html

(link to larger image here)

(link to larger image here)

(link to larger image here)

By setting an non-optimal frequency I forced the ZPM to take 300mA and 221mA from source because at lower power consumption (like 85mA in the third image) the wattmeter will just display "0.00A", I suppose it was not made to measure a value so low in amperes.

Please keep in mind that the wattmetter itself is taking some current so the source's display will show slightly higher current values than the wattmeter. So about this I'm 99.99% percent sure source's readings are correct, don't think it's possible to have both source and wattmeter fooled and displaying miliampers while the power drawn to be ampers.

Other thing that I tried to make sure the source's readings are correct: the source has an physical amperage limiter so you can set the maximum current it can provide before its auto-protection is triggered on. So I set the limiter to few miliampers and tested with an 12V/5W bulb light, here is a video with the test:

About signal generator, I don't see it capable to provide ampers, based on my research these things can't provide more than about 100mA. Here is a video where this model is opened up:

Frankly I don't think it's possible to have two 12V/35W halogen light bulbs powered by that little transformer you see inside of the signal generator without it being destroyed already.

About the MOSFET driver, it's powered directly from source so it can't provide power itself.

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

it can be avoided by using optical isolating drivers, or dedicated optocouplers to separate the signal source from your  tested device. If you need help for a circuit diagram just let me know, or you could use the design of the power switch modules posted in my thread about switching tool development.

As I said I'm a beginner about electronics so I will try to find out about optical isolating drivers and optocuplers. How would the simpler schematics for something like this would look like ? Would be helpful to know what components to look for, don't know if I'll have time now to build something like this but I can add it to my to-do list. Thanks !

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey dude! Nice work. But take note!
The internal instruments of some tear discs may be misinformed by extreme pulses.
Place the 4700-10000y capacitor in parallel with the output of the power supply. The power supply instrument already measures this current consumption.Vidura's comment is also helpful.

Thanks ! I will try to put 10,000uF capacitor in parallel with the source, thanks for the suggestion.

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Thank you for posting this Fighter and also CD_Sharp. Very insightfull.

All the best,

Vasile

You're welcome, please replicate it, test it and if your research can help in enhancing it please share your enhancements with us here. Thank you.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

And here I'm adding the oscilloscope data with probes set to 10X (on output you can see 3 x 12V/5W light bulbs).

Here the yellow channel probes are put on parallel with the light bulbs, meaning it's showing signal from both coils (link to larger image here):

Note: for some unknown reason the blue channel is showing also some signal even if I disconnect its probes from oscilloscope, it's nothing wrong with the channel, it's the first case when I see it not showing a straight line when its probes are disconnected.

And here you can see the blue channel probes put on the small coil ("L") and the yellow channel probes put on the bigger coil ("R") (link to larger image here):

This second image is the most interesting because it's showing the interaction between the two coils while ZPM is functioning.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

And here you can see photos of tests with halogen light bulbs.

This test is with one 12V/20W halogen light bulb, I had it put directly on the table and it was so hot that I noticed the table under the light bulb started to emit smoke, see the small yellow dot on the table in the last photo (link to larger image here):

And the test below is with 2 x 12V/35W halogen light bulbs, as a temporary solution to avoid burning the table I put them on a testboard so they don't stay on the table but for now I can't test with them more than 2-3 minutes because for sure the plastic from the testboard will start to melt; the last image shows the luminozity of these two halogen lights when the lights in the room are turned off (link to larger image here):

After these tests and after having a conversation with Cd_Sharp the conclusion is: this device can be scaled up and can provide power to standard 220V light bulbs.

Note: I intend to record a video to present a test with those two 12V/35W halogen light bulbs, hopefully I will have some time to do this in weekend, I'll post it here when it's ready.

cd_sharp posted this 4 weeks ago

My friends, this can be feed-back looped as suggested. A cap is fed by the input power but also by one POC at a time like here , here and probably some other places.

cd_sharp posted this 4 weeks ago

Fighter, this is how an optocoupler works, for example if wanting to insert the mains AC sine wave into a microcontroller. The AC signal is rectified (but not filtered) and fed to the optocoupler:

Between Out and Gnd is the optically coupled (electrically decoupled) signal. It's a very simple and useful little device.

JohnStone posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Fighter,

Thanks for sharing your findings :-)

BTW: Myself born in Romania as well - long, long ago :-)

  1. ---------------------

In order to avoid endless discussions about your setup I suggest to feed it for about 5 hours from two or three 9V blocks being connected in series. Below you see an example of  the current capability of an 9V Energizer brand  (end voltage to be 6V):

1 mA - 800 h

10 mA - 55 h

100 mA - 4 h

200 mA - 1,7 h

300 mA - 55 min

400 mA - 25 min

500 mA - 12 min

600 mA - 9 min

700 mA - 5 min


If the batteries survive a 5h challange you can continue with real productive work.

2. -------------------------------
Regarding (possible) feed of energy via your FET switcher from generator:

If you estimate the gate capacitance of the FET to be about 1nF you get for 600kHz a complex impedance of about 265 Ohm.
This gives for 24V about 10mA - theoretically.

But as soon you switch the FET on this minute energy will be shorted to GND only.

The hint from a member is basically sound (theoretically) but in this case you can neglect it.

3. ------------------

Please continue your good work. I am willing to support you in terms of simple but effective methods of measurements for crystal clear clarity on your setup. Remember i.e. my recent post regarding measurement of luminositiy. So please ask!

 

4. --------------

For utmost clarity please confirm:

  1. The FET sits in that black box left hand side in your video?
  2. The GND lead of your generator is being connected to the "source" pin of the FET.

 

Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter, Please don't misunderstand my last post, I did not want to disregard anything of your work, as I stated my first impression was that it is AU. Take my comments for information purposes if you want, in some cases when we deal with small power levels all this things can be valuable, but if you could actually light two 35w bulbs, the influence from the SG can of course be neglected. Anyway here a suggestion for a very simple isolating switching application. Vidura

YoElMiCrO posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi all.

@ Fighter.
I agree with what you mention.
Some time ago perform tests to contrast what N.E Zaev commented about his ferrocassor.
Your circuit and yours have the same in common, only not with bucking coils.
In order to appreciate the phenomenon, a nucleus with a large mass is necessary,
only a small part of it creates the BH/2 energy due to the automation trend
of the core.
The material you use is very good, it has a large μ(max)/μ(inc)] ratio.
To observe the energy gain, iL should be grown up to the value of μ(max) and it will depend on the core, but always around 1.2~1.5Hc, ie, within the reversible area of ​​hysteresis.
It can be shown that the energy absorbed by the charge from the source during the magnetization cycle is:
Edc^2/RL(Ton/T) for being parallel to the inductor, now ...
An energy is also stored in the inductor and will be 0.5iL^2L.
If we look at the behavior of the sling form at the time of Toff we will see an adiabatic process, this is due to the self-magnetization of the material used and contributes to the decrease of its internal entropy, this is where the free energy is.
Then for the demagnetization cycle or Toff we will have two types of energy, one is kinetic and the other potential, it is the sum of these energies that is delivered to the load.
If we analyze, we will see that Pin = [Edc^2/RL(Ton/T)] + [iL^2L/(2T)] and for Toff approximately ...
Pout = [Edc^2/RL(Ton/T)] + [0.5Edc^2/RL(td/T)] + [iL^2L/(2T)] if we assume Ploss = 0.
If the second member in the sums of the equation is different from 0, then Pout/Pin> 1 given that E(cd)=Ed+Efb.
We see that during the self-magnetization cycle the energy is really free and drifts
of the intrinsic property of temperature exchange with the middle of the ferromagnetic core, which from the engineering point of view can be approximated by an infinite heatsink.
To better understand the exposed ...

This study is by N.E Zaev as commented at the beginning of the post and a simple way to understand the phenomenon, without complicated equations or at least the minimum.

I hope I help you in the experiments.
Thanks for sharing.

YoElMiCrO

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Guys, thank you for your posts, the information and idea from your posts are extremely interesting. Right now I'm at work and can't reply properly but I'll do it during the weekend for each of your posts. Sorry, if it would be possible to buy more time (to have like 30 hours per day) I would gladly do it...

@YoElMiCrO: I'm gonna read this document before asking some questions (even if I already have some in my mind right now about the content of your previous post):

Rediscovering Zaev’s ferro-kessor

For example this, I find it very intriguing :

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cd_sharp posted this 4 weeks ago

Vidura, my friend, I also tried to tune the device using a ferrite core. I had no luck either. I know that the magnetic field distributes homogeneously in ferrite. This could be related.

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Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey CD,
I honestly could not dedicate much time these days to the experiments, anyway I found some interesting effects. It is certainly worth to study more about this simple circuit. I dont have much varieties of cores , and there is no local supplier for metglas cores, so I simply used what I had at hand. There seems to build up a huge amount of recirculating- reactive power when resonant, and it happened very seldom that the bulbs lit, although that the power from the source should be present anytime. The voltage on the center tap between the coils becomes pretty high, and the two coils are always 180ª out of phase. Also I noted a important power drawing of the driver  >2w @ 450kHz , using a IRF250 mosfet, it could be normal, I didn't make the calculation. When I lowered the frequency  below 70 kHz the lamps(2x3W @6v) lit dimly at a lower harmonic . I guess the core and coils I used dont have  the adecuate parameters for a successful replication.

Then I wanted to share this  idea regarding the output power measurement. I remembered the researcher Robert Adams, who used to be a professional in calorimetric power measurements. It would be a possibility to use a small  submergible water heater of convenient  resistance (there are 12v models available), and take temperature readings for a exact amount of water, in a measured time interval the power / work can exactly be calculated. A very interesting comparison could be made with the change of temperature of the core, in the same time interval, in order to proof or disprove the theory of conversion of thermal energy in the core.

Vidura

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@Cd-Sharp

My friends, this can be feed-back looped as suggested. A cap is fed by the input power but also by one POC at a time like here , here and probably some other places.

I agree but first we should figure out what exactly from that output burned the 10,000uF/50V capacitor from one of the two channels of my bridge-rectifier using fast Schottky diodes and resolve that problem. Right now I'm sure it will happen again with the other channel if I try again. Also I have other 2 capacitors like this but they could be killed too if using them both in the same time on output will not resolve the problem

Fighter, this is how an optocoupler works, for example if wanting to insert the mains AC sine wave into a microcontroller. The AC signal is rectified (but not filtered) and fed to the optocoupler:

Between Out and Gnd is the optically coupled (electrically decoupled) signal. It's a very simple and useful little device.

Few questions about the capabilities of octocuplers:

  1. Are they "copying" exactly the form of the signal from a function generator ? Any kind of signal like sinewave, rectangular, triangular etc. with their duty-cycle ?
  2. How many Ampers can they handle ? Do they need radiators for high current ? I suppose they do.
  3. How much they can handle in terms of high-frequency ? Can they go to let's say 700-800 KHz ?
  4. What model would be able to handle currents of max. 5A and frequencies of max. 700-800 Khz (higher = better) without distorting the "copied" signal ?

Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@JohnStone:

In order to avoid endless discussions about your setup I suggest to feed it for about 5 hours from two or three 9V blocks being connected in series.

I tried to test it this way using 3 x 9V Duracell batteries (the nearby store don't have Energizer) but there is a flaw in this scenario: the batteries cannot sustain the same voltage during the tests. More specific this is what I did:

Searched for the optimum frequency of ZPM for 27V and saved it in the signal generator memory (link to larger image here):

Then replaced the source with batteries. The luminosity of the light bulb is much lower and it stays on for about 15 minutes before it goes off. Batteries are getting warm. If I shutdown the test and wait for a while this can be repeated for another approx. 15 minutes (link to larger image here):

After few tests like this wanted to check what's going on. I connected the multimeter, checked and found out that the voltage of the batteries drop fast from the beginning of the test, this is a video made after few tests:

As you can see the voltage is decreasing fast and after few tests batteries have only 23V not 27V for which I set the frequency of the test.

I kind of find this test inconclusive because having a variable voltage the frequency of the ZPM is not optimum at all so of course it will require more current all the time not just a few miliampers like it's happening when the source is providing the same voltage and there is a fixed optimum frequency.

Maybe I should search for an standard AC adapter providing around 25V, capable to provide a limited amount of current (to see if it's capable to power the test) and put an AC wattmeter on it during the test so I can check the input without the DC source. But I don't know if a standard AC wattmeter is capable of showing accurate reading at miliampers level...

Please continue your good work. I am willing to support you in terms of simple but effective methods of measurements for crystal clear clarity on your setup. Remember i.e. my recent post regarding measurement of luminositiy. So please ask!

Thank you, I will.

For utmost clarity please confirm:

  1. The FET sits in that black box left hand side in your video?
  2. The GND lead of your generator is being connected to the "source" pin of the FET.
  1. Yes. Actually I have two IRF3205ZPBF FETs because the driver has two channels but currently I'm using only one channel like in the photos I previously posted;
  2. Yes. Every FET is connected to a single channel from signal generator but I'm actually using only one channel from signal generator for ZPM; FET is connected as in this image (link to larger image here):

If you want I could open that box to take some photos but I don't have a lot of time now, I need to answer to all the latest posts here as I promised.

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Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter, Thanks for sharing your work. I will answer your questions about optical isolating of the signal. But in first place I would suggest that you put a scope probe on the gate of the MOSFET, to check what signal is actually fed. What MOSFET you are using? optocouplers do only transfer signals, not power, and the frequency capability depends on the model. You have to be aware that the gate drive of a MOSFET require power, and this power increase proportional to the frequency. For this reason for practical implementation the frequency should better be kept lower. In the modul that I have shown in the video the power for this can be provided by the same supply, or by a dedicated separate source. And the driver is have a high speed optocoupler in the same chip integrated, for easy implementation. I can provide you a further simplified circuit if you want. Regards the back looping u would suggest to try with UF diodes rated for higher voltage, and a smaller capacitor, and some 100 nF Cap in parallel to smoot the spikes. Regards Vidura.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@Vidura:

Hey Fighter, Please don't misunderstand my last post, I did not want to disregard anything of your work, as I stated my first impression was that it is AU. Take my comments for information purposes if you want, in some cases when we deal with small power levels all this things can be valuable, but if you could actually light two 35w bulbs, the influence from the SG can of course be neglected. Anyway here a suggestion for a very simple isolating switching application. Vidura

Hey, man, no worries, we're working with different devices having different behaviors here so any opinion is most than welcomed Especially because I'm a beginner in electronics I'm always listening and learning.

About the driver I saw the video so should I use in the same time the optocuplers and the IRF3205ZPBFs I already have ? What optocuplers should I use for these transistors ? How would the schema for a signle-channel driver would look like ? Could it handle high frequencies like 700-800 KHz ? Thanks !

Hey CD,
I honestly could not dedicate much time these days to the experiments, anyway I found some interesting effects. It is certainly worth to study more about this simple circuit. I dont have much varieties of cores , and there is no local supplier for metglas cores, so I simply used what I had at hand. There seems to build up a huge amount of recirculating- reactive power when resonant, and it happened very seldom that the bulbs lit, although that the power from the source should be present anytime. The voltage on the center tap between the coils becomes pretty high, and the two coils are always 180ª out of phase. Also I noted a important power drawing of the driver  >2w @ 450kHz , using a IRF250 mosfet, it could be normal, I didn't make the calculation. When I lowered the frequency  below 70 kHz the lamps(2x3W @6v) lit dimly at a lower harmonic . I guess the core and coils I used dont have  the adecuate parameters for a successful replication.

Then I wanted to share this  idea regarding the output power measurement. I remembered the researcher Robert Adams, who used to be a professional in calorimetric power measurements. It would be a possibility to use a small  submergible water heater of convenient  resistance (there are 12v models available), and take temperature readings for a exact amount of water, in a measured time interval the power / work can exactly be calculated. A very interesting comparison could be made with the change of temperature of the core, in the same time interval, in order to proof or disprove the theory of conversion of thermal energy in the core.

Vidura

So you saw almost the same behavior I presented here when the frequency is optimum but not low-amperage on your DC source's readings ? Could be something wrong with my source's reading and in the same time with the wattmeter's readings ?..

About reading watter temperature method, kind of need to buy anything because I don't have that 12V water heater and also I would need a waterproof temperature reader. I have a temperature reader on one of my multimeters but it's not waterproof and I never used it, don't know if it's accurate or not. Eventually I could use it to check if the temperature of the core drops, hopefully it can show me somehow accurate data...

Hey Fighter, Thanks for sharing your work. I will answer your questions about optical isolating of the signal. But in first place I would suggest that you put a scope probe on the gate of the MOSFET, to check what signal is actually fed. What MOSFET you are using? optocouplers do only transfer signals, not power, and the frequency capability depends on the model. You have to be aware that the gate drive of a MOSFET require power, and this power increase proportional to the frequency. For this reason for practical implementation the frequency should better be kept lower. In the modul that I have shown in the video the power for this can be provided by the same supply, or by a dedicated separate source. And the driver is have a high speed optocoupler in the same chip integrated, for easy implementation. I can provide you a further simplified circuit if you want. Regards the back looping u would suggest to try with UF diodes rated for higher voltage, and a smaller capacitor, and some 100 nF Cap in parallel to smoot the spikes. Regards Vidura.

I'm using IRF3205ZPBFs on every channel, the driver has two channels but I'm currently using only one for this experiment. I disconnected the channel from ZPM and I put the oscilloscope on it, this is how it looks like, don't look like a very accurate squarewave but could be because of the high frequency (link to larger image here):

About the driver I saw the video so should I use in the same time the optocuplers and the IRF3205ZPBFs I already have ? What optocuplers should I use for these transistors ? How would the schema for a signle-channel driver would look like ? Could it handle high frequencies like 700-800 KHz ? Thanks !

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YoElMiCrO posted this 4 weeks ago

@ Fighter.
Thanks for sharing your experiments.
What is happening to you may be buspumping, if that is
you solve it with a series diode directly in the drain of the mosfet, in this way
the parasitic diode inside it does not clamp during the Toff cycle.

Design a circuit to see what really happens, I publish it in your post
when it is finished and tested.

YoElMiCrO.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@YoElMiCrO:

You seem to have an very advanced background in mathematics and physics so of course your insights are very helpful, thanks.

I did read the document about Ferro-Kessor, first of all I wasn't aware of that by magnetizing a core its temperature drops.

I have few questions about your post:

  1. In your opinion are here the characteristics of an over-unity device ? Especially seeing the oscilloscope readings, did you saw something similar in other devices ? I'm asking this because for now even if i see the two 12V/25W halogen lights' luminosity I'm still struggling to figure out a way to get precise reading of the output; also even if I used DC source's readings and also an DC wattmeter reading there could be like 1% possibility to have inaccurate  readings on input too;
  2. Considering the very high frequency how is possible to have the core temperature dropping and then receiving temperature from environment in just a single cycle ? Does the core have enough time to do this in just miliseconds ?
  3. Do you think that in order to scale up ZPM using a bigger core is the only way ? I was thinking scaling up the coils could be a valid way too, eventually changing their turns ratio could be another possible way (right now it's approx. 1/2 - 150/300 turns;
  4. What are μ(max) and μ(inc)], I understand they are specific to the core ?

Thanks for the answers.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

@ Fighter.
Thanks for sharing your experiments.
What is happening to you may be buspumping, if that is
you solve it with a series diode directly in the drain of the mosfet, in this way
the parasitic diode inside it does not clamp during the Toff cycle.

YoElMiCrO.

You're welcome

Is it possible to have impact on the DC source's readings and also in the same time on the DC wattmeter I used to verify the DC source's readings ? Could both be affected by something in the same time and show very wrong readings like miliampers instead of hundreds of miliampers ?

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YoElMiCrO posted this 4 weeks ago

@ Fighter.

The reality is that it is always difficult to confirm the UA, but not impossible.
I'll analyze the waveforms to see what happens.
If I have seen anomalous behavior in some circuits.
The action by which the core auto-magnetizes is an intrinsic parameter of the core and
can go from the nano seconds to hours, you have to keep in mind that B should
remain constant and at a value where the permeability of the core is maximum.
That's why you need some way to control Ton.
Each core according to its mass will obtain a determined energy of the medium, but
Of course, increasing the number of turns also increases the inductance and
you must lower iL so that B is the one that maintains the maximum permeability.
μ(inc) is the permeability of the core just where the hysteresis curve becomes
linear and μ (max) is the maximum permeability achieved by said core for a value
of given magnetic field.
Today I will do tests to try to replicate the phenomenon and understand it, because I never tried
with bucking coils.

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JohnStone posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Fighter,

I have a possible suggestion for the premature death of your capacitor.

At switch mode PSUs the storage capacitors need to be specified for severe (1) pulsating currents - else they tend to explode. Standard electrolytic capacitors do not have sophisticated internal connections. So if pulsed with high repetetive currents they experience temperature rise. I experienced it live once when a SMPS exploded 8 capacitors one by one up to burning the machine it was supposed to feed.

Additionally SMPS require capacitors with (2) low inductivity of the leads (low ESR) in order to get the pulsating currents to the full surface of thecapacitor plates. Many electrolytic caps are specified for 50/60Hz only.

I suppose your huge capacitor was not specified for (1) nor (2). So this capacitor might be part of the tank circuit but not with full specified capacity  but some intermediate parasitic R/L/C value.

Additionally the output capacitor inside your PSU might be as well part of the tank circuit. At such conditions the PSU is not able to measure currents reliably.

You might try using a diode in series to your 24V lead (coming from PSU) in order to eliminate backlash to your PSU. 

 

-----------------------------

Your input configuration:

I feel that your setup operates intensively with the power supply as part of the oscillations.

Please be aware that a FET has an intrinsic, reverse and parasitic diode (not very fast) - see schematic symbol .

  • In ON state the power will flow from plus to GND - as intended.
  • IN OFF state the power might flow reverse through the parasitic diode. 

YoElMiCrO  suggested the insertion of an additional diode in order to overcome this implication.

---------------------

It would be very interesting if you could check if the sweet spot (frequency) of your setup depends on the value or make of this huge capacitor.

-------------------------

Fighter, you should not be disappointed. :-)

Unfortunately you tapped into several parasitic properties of electronic components. In fact EVERY component has R/L/C properties or some parasitic diodes .... but usually they do not matter if used in proved standard circuits. High frequency is one ingredient that makes them matter. That's life! Sometimes learning goes the hard way. But you will get support in this forum. Important is - you DO learn.

So, before you dive into opto couplers please re-check the operation of your setup:

  1. with those two diodes added (see above)
  2. Sweet spot (resonance) without and with different makes or values of capacitors (replacing that high 10000µF cap.)

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Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter,

As you can see the signal on the gate is not the expected square wave at 50%Dty. This happens because the drive capabilities of the SG, are not sufficient at high frequencies. But this does not mean that the device don't work of course. In order for not flooding your thread with information about switching(there are some specific threads on this topic, where we can discuss different switching techniques ) I will come to the point:  to answer the question about the accuracy of the input measurements: Yes there is a possibility that the digital meters give erroneous readings. As it seems the device is capable to light two 35W bulbs to a considerable brightness we can ignore the few watts that might come from the SG. The main concern at the moment I guess is to verify if the readings on the input are accurate, I suggest two methods: first to put a current sensing resistor on the input and use the scope to measure the current and voltage from the  power supply. It should be immune to RF interference. second method: add a low pass filter between the power supply and the circuit like this: 

 

the component values are not critical , two inductors of a few mH a big electrolytic cap, and another  cap about 100nF

then try if there is a change in the readings of the displays.

I hope this helps .

VIDURA.

 

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Chris posted this 4 weeks ago

My Friends,

I need to say, the term: Parasitic, is a term used when one gets something that is not wanted, E.G: Stray Signals.

 

Do not forget, this is what we want! It is important that our equipment, specifically Partnered Output Coils, Bucking Coils, "Generate" a Voltage and therefore Current. Remember: I = V / R

Importantly, Parasitic for some, is the complete opposite for others!

I like the term Bus-Pumping, as this is quite literally what we are doing! Again, for us, this is not a Parasitic Process, this is quite literally: Electromagnetic Induction, the process we are encouraging!

As an example, look at the Parasitic Signals in this Video:

 

I hope this helps some!

   Chris

Marathonman posted this 4 weeks ago

I would suggest a PI filter which is the same as Vidura's but with a cap in front of the inductors also. good advice vidura.

Marathonman

Vasile posted this 4 weeks ago

Hello Fighter,

As I also had a Metglas core available (see Picture 1), I tryed your experiment and it did not work for me. Of course, it is not exactly like yours because of mainly two factors: size of core and amount/ratio of windings. I truly believe you stumbled upon something interesting. I have a little laboratory myself, as I like to study different natural phenomena (not only electric or magnetic).  Of course the power source and signal generator are present (see Picture 2). I am also from Romania and I would like to test the core myself. You can have my general info, name, phone, adress, etc. I don't care. You can send thru a courier service( FanCourier preferably as they are more serious and I would pay both ways, to me and back to you). Or you can come yourself to my place and test it. I have to admit I have a different aproach in my experiments, meaning they are not exactly like yours as I kind of stay away from high frequency high power, but when I read thru it I realized I hadn't seen something this close to a very energy efficient circuit. That' s why I want to test it, maybe it helps you. I wait for your reply.

All the best,

Vasile

 

 

 

Attached Files

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi JohnStone,

At switch mode PSUs the storage capacitors need to be specified for severe (1) pulsating currents - else they tend to explode. Standard electrolytic capacitors do not have sophisticated internal connections. So if pulsed with high repetetive currents they experience temperature rise. I experienced it live once when a SMPS exploded 8 capacitors one by one up to burning the machine it was supposed to feed.

Additionally SMPS require capacitors with (2) low inductivity of the leads (low ESR) in order to get the pulsating currents to the full surface of thecapacitor plates. Many electrolytic caps are specified for 50/60Hz only.

I suppose your huge capacitor was not specified for (1) nor (2). So this capacitor might be part of the tank circuit but not with full specified capacity  but some intermediate parasitic R/L/C value.

What kind of capacitors are specified for pulsating currents and also low ESR ? Can you give me a hint about a type or an manufacturer producing them ? How expensive are they comparing to what we have in common stores ?

You might try using a diode in series to your 24V lead (coming from PSU) in order to eliminate backlash to your PSU. 

The fastest diodes I have now in stock are some Schottky diodes, I suppose I actually need some ultra-fast diode to be able to respond to the frequency ranges I'm using (hundreds of KHz).

Your input configuration:

I feel that your setup operates intensively with the power supply as part of the oscillations.

Please be aware that a FET has an intrinsic, reverse and parasitic diode (not very fast) - see schematic symbol .

  • In ON state the power will flow from plus to GND - as intended.
  • IN OFF state the power might flow reverse through the parasitic diode. 

YoElMiCrO  suggested the insertion of an additional diode in order to overcome this implication.

---------------------

It would be very interesting if you could check if the sweet spot (frequency) of your setup depends on the value or make of this huge capacitor.

-------------------------

I could also try with diode on drain of the MOSFET but this will need more time (modifying the current MOSFET driver) and for this also I need to buy ultra-fast diodes because I don't have any in stock right now. I'll see what I can do depending on the available time. About the capacitor(s) in DC source, I would't make any changes in there just for testing, sorry but I think you understand...

Fighter, you should not be disappointed. :-)

Unfortunately you tapped into several parasitic properties of electronic components. In fact EVERY component has R/L/C properties or some parasitic diodes .... but usually they do not matter if used in proved standard circuits. High frequency is one ingredient that makes them matter. That's life! Sometimes learning goes the hard way. But you will get support in this forum. Important is - you DO learn.

Actually I'm very dissapointed. That DC source is a lab source, should not care about spikes, pulses or frequencies, its readings should be accurate no matter what. Also that wattmeter being affected in the same way ? I used it to double-check the source's readings. And also those MOSFETS which seem to not be able to handle hundreds of KHz and also sending back to source spikes ? Seems our current electronics available in store are very limited about high-frequencies. What I don't get it is how that current limiter on the DC source is affected also ? I mean that is a physical knob not some software thing. Displaying bad readings I kind of understand. But how is that physical current limited being fooled so the source provide let's ampers while that limiter is set to a few miliampers ? I have some doubts about that current limiter being also affected. I'll figure it out in one way or another.

Thanks for the help and advice !

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Vidura,

The main concern at the moment I guess is to verify if the readings on the input are accurate, I suggest two methods: first to put a current sensing resistor on the input and use the scope to measure the current and voltage from the  power supply. It should be immune to RF interference. second method: add a low pass filter between the power supply and the circuit

The first thing I will try is with a ultra-fast diode put on the output of the source as JohnStone suggested, then I would try with the same type of diode on MOSFET drain as YoElMiCrO suggested. About measuring input power I would try the current sensing resistor, I don't have something useful right now but I'll figure it out about this method.

Thanks for the help and advice !

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Marathonman,

I would suggest a PI filter which is the same as Vidura's but with a cap in front of the inductors also. good advice vidura.

Yeah, I would need to try multiple ways, I will start with the simpler way - ultra-fast diode on DC-source's output, maybe that (hopefully) resolves the issue... If not I'm gonna work on the filter.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Vasile,

As I also had a Metglas core available (see Picture 1), I tryed your experiment and it did not work for me. Of course, it is not exactly like yours because of mainly two factors: size of core and amount/ratio of windings. I truly believe you stumbled upon something interesting. I have a little laboratory myself, as I like to study different natural phenomena (not only electric or magnetic).  Of course the power source and signal generator are present (see Picture 2). I am also from Romania and I would like to test the core myself. You can have my general info, name, phone, adress, etc. I don't care. You can send thru a courier service( FanCourier preferably as they are more serious and I would pay both ways, to me and back to you). Or you can come yourself to my place and test it. I have to admit I have a different aproach in my experiments, meaning they are not exactly like yours as I kind of stay away from high frequency high power, but when I read thru it I realized I hadn't seen something this close to a very energy efficient circuit. That' s why I want to test it, maybe it helps you. I wait for your reply.

I doubt the core size is important in replicating ZPM but I think you should try with more turns, the magnetic field produced by your smaller coil I don't think it's significant. And (at least for now) try with 1/2 turns ratio I'm currently using. You may use different wire so there will be enough space for let's say 100/200 turns on your core. I will assist you in any way I can in replicating ZPM. About mine, sorry but I need it to figure out ways to get accurate readings on input, I need it for experiments. But I had a discussion with Cd_Sharp and he wants to try a replication, I have a second brand-new identical core and I'm gonna meet Cd_Sharp when he finishes the coil supports he's working on and I'll give him the core, would be nice to (hopefully) have a second device in tests. Please let me know how your device works with the new coils and ask me anything, I would gladly answer to your questions. Would be nice to have a third device in tests Thanks !

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi guys,

Short question, I have two shunt resistors like this, do you think I can use them for measuring current on input and output ?

https://www.amazon.com/SMAKN-current-shunt-resistor-Ampere/dp/B00GH8ZRUW

Thanks,

Fighter

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Chris posted this 4 weeks ago

Hi Fighter,

I would invest in small precision resistors.

You could use those shunts, but there will be a large error margin because of the super high Ampere rating: 200A

Also I did not see a defined Resistance, assuming ( 0.00038 Ohms from Ohms Law ), and did not see any accuracy rating: ±5%

I would find some 0.1 Ohms precision resistors. It will make life very much easier!

Measure Mean Input:

 

Measure Mean Output:

 

NOTE: If your PSU is Grounded to the same Ground as your Scope, you may have an issue here.

Ohms Law, I = V / R gives us a 10x factor ( 0.1 Ohms ) that's why the Current Probe is 10x then its just:

Vmean x Imean = Pmean

It would be nice as I PM'd you, to put big Caps in there to smooth out the DC Ripple, but most scopes today should be able to sort this out!

   Chris

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Adding the missing information translated from the Romanian store I actually bought them from (about one year ago).

It say maximum voltage 24V. On output of ZPM I could have spikes of high voltage I guess.

Description:

The input voltage range is 6-24V, and overvoltage will cause permanent damage. The green and black cables are plugged into small screws, do not fit into large screws because they affect precision. The direction of shunt current is from the green thread to the black thread.

Technical specifications:

• Model: 200A / 75mV
• Precision level: 0.5-1
• Overload capacity: 120% of rated current, 2 hours
• Resistance to shock frequencies: 80 ~ 120 times / min, 6 hours
• Voltage drop: 75mV
• Environmental conditions: -40 to + 60 ° c
• Size: 119 x 21 mm

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Thank you for the schemas and for advice Chris, I appreciate...

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Chris posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter,

I know you already know how to measure DC Power Fighter, more so for other readers. wink

   Chris

Vidura posted this 4 weeks ago

here a very cheap precision shunt, 10  1ohm 1% metal film resistors in parallel, for a 0.1 ohm shunt. good up to 3-4 amps:

@ Fighter , when you continue tests it would be nice to see a scope shot from the mosfetgate when the ZPM is on load.

Thank's VIDURA.

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Fighter posted this 4 weeks ago

Hey Fighter,

I know you already know how to measure DC Power Fighter, more so for other readers. wink

Theoretically I know how but never did it, I always used multimeters and where needed gate-rectifiers So the schemas you posted really helps, thanks !

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JohnStone posted this 3 weeks ago

Fighter, you asked for some know-how on capacitors. Sorry for delay - am currently very busy.

Here you are.

If you deal with electrolytic caps and fast signals the code word is "low ESR" (see link). These types of capacitors are specified for 100KHz as well. Use of such caps is at SMPS (switch mode power supply) devices - as example.

But you will probably not find a model with (a) low ESR AND (b) 10 mF capacity. Additionally it makes no real sense in your setup as you deal with a frequency around 500KHz. At this freqeuncy this cap does not see the frequency at all. It hides successfully behind the high ESR (series resistor).

But there is a trick available:

Adding different capcitors (value / type) in parallel. Then it does not matter if you have huge amps pulses or fast high frequency ones. Every shape of signal will find its proper "drain" to sink in. Such a cascade could look like:

  • 1000µF electrolytic (not necessarily low ESR)
  • 100µF electrolytic low ESR
  • 10µF electrolytic low ESR
  • 1µF ceramic
  • 100nF ceramic
  • and more  - depending on application

In case of problems you might add at every stage (for test) a second one and see if it makes any difference.

If you consider the knowledge regarding low ESR (see link above) you will understand that we deal with a kind of parasitic series resistor inside the capacitor. Best is to have it low. For ceramic cap types ESR is not really an issue.

Considering the notion above you might deduct that it is important to not add resistance by tiny little wires if you connect your capacitors. Such setup will add deliberate ESR to any kind of capactior.
(BTW: I hate those Chinese cables with alligator clips. You see them frequently in many youtube videos. If you use them at small signals it might be OK but NEVER, NEVER use them if you have to consider decent current pulses. Depending on budget please consider those terminals w/ or w/o screw from normal mains installation.
 They were invented for huge contact performance. Such wiring at your setup does not look nice but is very healthy :-)) 

Experience:

If you wire a normal 50Hz PSU from rectifier to the smoothing cap and you use fat wire; it is still a huge difference if you wire 8cm or 3cm between rectifier and cap. You see the result immediately at the scope as change in ripple voltage. Sometimes there is no ripple at the capactitor and huge ripple at output if wiring was done wrongly.

So please, obsereve your wiring! If you are not happy with your setup then check (1) wire diameter (2) contact quality and (3) distance. These ingredients if used smartly, perform often as cheap and instant magic.

These hints are not for Fighter only, of course. Physics performs universally for ALL in very same manner!

                                             ~o0o~

 

Jagau posted this 3 weeks ago

Completely agree with you johnstone

I also hate those Chinese connectors that have a floating contact that we see everywhere on the net,

remove the insulation you will see what I mean. if you want to keep them made like me solder them.

I had to repeat several expereinces because of them. Now I have better power cables.

ESR is a must they win to be known, we have to watch too the following:

voltage rating, RMS current rating and one we cannot forget equivalent series or parallel resistance of your capacitor same thing for inductor.


Jagau

JohnStone posted this 3 weeks ago

Isolated circuits:

Recently some of you discussed the use of opto couplers. Please be aware that there is a thread here discussing this topic as well. They proceed in a very professional and skilled manner. Congratulations! This approach is sound but includes many prerequisites and sometimes skills. Circuits are well suited to be converted to final working models.

But there are other approches possible. Please understand there is no good or bad approach. So I will present below my version being applicable for lab use only - quick and not so much dirty :-)

I have tons of 5V wall chargers (USB) laying around - probably everyone. So if you need 5V isolated you give these devices a go. If you use logic level FETs you and they may be satisfied.
In my case I am not and I added 5V -> 15 V 1W isolated DC/DC converters. They are available as 2W version as well and do comply to low budgets. Connect two of them and you have +/- 15V for OP amps ....... So you might be able to compose just out of the box any support for isolated power supply (lower power area up to 24V) and later on you will be able to dismantle and reuse those components at will.

Of course you might choose to work with other wall chrgers and input voltage of i.e 12V and go same path with DC/DC converters. Below some pics just for better understanding.

 I admit, no sane creature would do this for final circuits. But for quick & dirty and reliable lab use it is suitable and I do so frequently.

Please understand: we talk here on LOW POWER signals like opto control for FETs or OPAMPS.

I hesitate to continue with more notions in order to prevent degressing from the main topic here. I will continue on request only in case you need hands-on solutions for your experiment.

Edit:

You may use your standard USB cables as well if you buy those cheap USB breakout PCBs - very convenient!

 i.e. type micro USB

 

 

 

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Chris posted this 3 weeks ago

My Friends,

I would like to encourage more people to follow this path of investigation.

Fighter is showing a lot of really good work! His results appear to be very promising!

I shared some similar work a long time ago: Here, I learned the importance of an Earth in SOME Machines. 

 

 

I used a Clunky Home Built H-Bridge, part of which is shown: Here

There is merit to this, Floyd Sweet gave a similar setup the name: The Oscillator

   Chris

 

Fighter posted this 3 days ago

Hi guys, sorry I was very busy at work and didn't had too much time to continue the experiments.

Few updates...

I tried to use my pocket oscilloscope and an 0.5 Ohms current-sensing resistor (I borrowed it from Cd_Sharp) to measure the current on input but for some unknown reason the measurements are not reliable. I guess this is the difference between a pocket oscilloscope and an full-sized oscilloscope so unless I buy a full-sized one I have no equipment to make this kind of measurement.

Probably I will need to buy one but not in the next few weeks.

Until then I'm trying an workaround, I bought a socket with energy-meter PeakTech P9035 and I intend to use it on the socket powering my source. My plan is to check the readings on it while the source is in stand-by, then powering up light-bulbs with known wattage then powering up ZPM so I can get at least a approximation of watts used by ZPM depending on what's displayed when powering up light-bulbs connected directly to source's output.

Meanwhile, following JohnStone's advice about possible issues at very high frequencies when using wires with crocodile-type terminals, I bought WAGO connectors and rebuilt all the connections:

Also I tested the scenario with a diode and an capacitor on source's output in order to filter possible high-frequency pulses sent back to source from the MOSFET driver which could impact source's power readings.

I used a fast Schottky diode (SB560) put on positive output of the source and an 10,000uF/50V electrolytic capacitor put in parallel on source's output.

Didn't noticed major changes on source's readings so I think this scenario is invalid.

Here is the video:

 

During this test I noticed something (you can see it in the video): adding/removing the capacitor is modifying the optimum frequency of the ZPM even if the capacitor (saw from ZPM's perspective) is behind the MOSFET driver and even behind the Schottky diode. The conclusion would be that this capacitor is somehow a part of the device and it's influencing it, not sure yet how this is possible. Also, my assumption is every DC source have a big capacitor on its output (not sure if it's true for all DC sources) so I guess the other capacitor incorporated in the DC source is being a part and affecting too ZPM's behavior and efficiency.

So when I tested with batteries as input there are two things missing: a ground connection (Chris made references about some devices needing ground connection to work better) and also I didn't had an capacitor in parallel on input as it's happening when using the DC source. Could be a key reason why using the batteries didn't worked well, I'll need to investigate more on this direction.

Another things I noticed during a different test is the AWG (diameter) of the input and output wires is very important. I simulated changing the wires AWG by adding/removing connectors in parallel with existing connectors on input and output. I noticed dramatic effects on efficiency and light-bulbs luminosity when changing the wires AWG as you can see the the following video (I'm using 2 x 12V/35W halogen light-bulbs on output). All the wires I use are litz wires. So be aware of this aspect at least when using on output light-bulbs greater than 5W, use a bigger AWG litz wires on input and output.

 

Something I also noticed when suing 2 x 12V/35W light-bulbs on output, when using those connectors having crocodile-style terminals and small AWG (diameter), the connectors on output are becoming so hot until the plastic which isolates their wires is going to the point of starting to melt even if they don't have direct thermic contact with the halogen lights; in the same time the same type of connectors on input are cold, not  even warmer.

Here could be two possible explanations:

  • let's just suppose there is the same amperage on input and output, the output wires are being hot because of the very high frequency AC while the wires on input are cold because there is DC;
  • or the amperage on the output is much higher than the amperage on the input (as source's readings and the luminosity of the light-bulbs seems to indicate) meaning high COP.

Something else about the MOSFET driver, as you noticed there was a LED indicator on it, inside I had an UA78L12 voltage regulator providing 12V for the LED, it worked for a while as you saw in my initial videos but in time because it had no radiator it stopped functioning as you saw in my other videos. So I decided to replace it with an UA7812 placed on a radiator on the top of the black box. So I removed the UA78L12 and the connectors to the LED and before making changes for UA7812 I ran a test to see if there are any changes in ZPM's behavior and source's reading, there was no difference so the presence of a voltage regulator in the MOSFET driver has no impact on the tests. Just wanted to make sure about it with this occasion.

During the MOSFET driver changes I thought it's good to take some photos of the inside of the black box so you can see what's inside - just a two-channel MOSFET driver and a 12V voltage regulator for powering the LED indicator. Later as the amperage on the ZPM's output will go higher it will be necessary to use those 12V also for a small fan to cool down the MOSFETS' radiator.

So here are the photos with the MOSFET driver opened up during the voltage regulator replacement, I will not post them here as they would take too much space in the thread, you could see them here instead:

https://imgur.com/a/2hRyUzw

I'll continue to post updates here depending on when I'll have again some time for experiments as I'm still very busy at work with the current project.

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